Doctrine of the Son of Man
I. Origin of the Title
A. Old Testament
1. Hebrew Mä∂dDa_NRb ben }aœd≈aœm son of man
a. Generally refers to a human being, originating from another human being.
Psa. 8:4 what is man that you are mindful of him,
the son of man that you care for him?
Ezek. 2:1;Num. 23:19; Job 25:6; Ps. 144:3 etc.
b. A title for Ezekiel over 90 times in the book of Ezekiel.
Ezek. 2:1 ¶ He said to me, “Son of man, stand up on your feet and I will speak to you.”
Ezek. 2:3,6,8; 3:1,3,4,10 etc.
This title became a constant reminder of Ezekiel’s own weakness as a man and his dependence upon the Spirit of God.
c. In a similar way, used one time with Daniel.
Dan. 8:17 ¶ As he came near the place where I was standing, I was terrified and fell prostrate. “Son of man,” he said to me, “understand that the vision concerns the time of the end.”
2. Aramaic v™DnTa r¶Ab bar }aœnasû son of man
a. A special reference to Jesus before the incarnation but referring to Jesus after the incarnation.
Dan. 7:13 I kept looking in the night visions
And behold with the clouds of heaven (sky),
One like a son of man was coming,
And He came up to the Ancient of Days
And was presented before Him.
b. Explanation: The one who appears before the Ancient of Days (God the Father) appears like a man but is of heavenly origin.
C. Greek ui˚o\ß touv aÓnqrw¿pou – son of man
1. Jesus frequently used the title to refer to himself.
Matt. 8:20 ¶ Jesus replied, “Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.”
2. The use of the title by Jesus provides us a definition of the term itself. To make this determination, we need to look at the way Jesus used it toward himself.
II. Jesus’ use of the title “Son of Man.” NB. Jesus is the one speaking in most all of these passages.
A. Regarding His coming—
Matt. 16:27 For the Son of Man is going to come in his Father’s glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done.
Matt. 16:28 I tell you the truth, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.”
Matt. 24:27 For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.
Matt. 24:30 ¶ “At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory.
Matt. 10:23; 24:37,39,44;26:44;16:13,28;Mk. 8:38 etc.
B. Reigning in the Kingdom of God on Earth
Matt. 19:28 ¶ Jesus said to them, “I tell you the truth, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Matt. 25:31 ¶ “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory.
C. His betrayal, condemnation, crucifixion, burial, resurrection and service
Matt. 20:18 “We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death
Matt. 26:2 “As you know, the Passover is two days away—and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.”
Matt. 20:28 just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
Mark 9:12 ¶ Jesus replied, “To be sure, Elijah does come first, and restores all things. Why then is it written that the Son of Man must suffer much and be rejected?
Matt. 12:40 For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
Matt. 17:19,22; Luke 24:7; Jn. 3:14; Mk. 9:31;10:33;Lu. 22:48
D. His heavenly origin
John 1:51 He then added, “I tell you the truth, you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”
John 3:13 No one has ever gone into heaven except the one who came from heaven—the Son of Man.
E. His authority to judge
John 5:27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.
Matt. 13:37—sends out angels to weed out his kingdom
Matt. 16:27—to give reward according to what each person has done.
F. His glorification
John 12:23 ¶ Jesus replied, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.
John 13:31 ¶ When he was gone, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in him.
G. His authority to forgive sins
Matt. 9:6 But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins. . . .”
III. When Stephen is about to die,
Acts 7:56 “Look,” he said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.”
IV. John’s vision in Revelation:
Rev. 1:13 and among the lampstands was someone “like a son of man,” dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest.
Rev. 14:14 ¶ I looked, and there before me was a white cloud, and seated on the cloud was one “like a son of man” with a crown of gold on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand.