Doctrine of the Son of Man
I. Old Testament Usage and Definition
A. Hebrew [Mä∂dDa_NRb ben }aœd≈aœm] son of man
1. Generally refers to a human being, originating from another human being.
Psa. 8:4 what is man that you are mindful of him,
the son of man that you care for him?
Ezek. 2:1;Num. 23:19; Job 25:6; Ps. 144:3 etc.
2. A title for Ezekiel over 90 times in the book of Ezekiel.
Ezek. 2:1 ¶ He said to me, “Son of man, stand up on your feet and I will speak to you.”
Ezek. 2:3,6,8; 3:1,3,4,10 etc.
This title became a constant reminder of Ezekiel’s own weakness as a man and his dependence upon the Spirit of God.
3. It is used one time in a similar way with Daniel.
Dan. 8:17 ¶ As he came near the place where I was standing, I was terrified and fell prostrate. “Son of man,” he said to me, “understand that the vision concerns the time of the end.”
B. Aramaic [ v™DnTa r¶Ab bar }aœnasû ] son of man
1. A special reference to Jesus before the incarnation but referring to Jesus after the incarnation.
Dan. 7:13 I kept looking in the night visions
And behold with the clouds of heaven (sky),
One like a son of man was coming,
And He came up to the Ancient of Days
And was presented before Him.
2. Explanation: The one who appears before the Ancient of Days (God the Father) appears like a man but is of heavenly origin.
II. New Testament Usage and Definition
A. Greek [ui˚o\ß touv aÓnqrw¿pou -] son of man
B. It is most often used by Jesus in referring to himself,
Matt. 8:20;11:19;12:8,32 etc. See III below.
C. Exceptions See IV-VI below.
a. Stephen seeing into heaven Acts 7:56;
b. John in Rev. 1:13; 14:14
c. Ps. 8:4 cited in Heb. 2:6
III. Jesus’ Self-Designation as the Son of Man
A. His Heavenly Origin
John 3:13 No one has ever gone into heaven except the one who came from heaven—the Son of Man.
John 6:62 Then what if you see the Son of Man ascend to where he was before!
B. His Ministry on Earth
1. His Authority to Judge
John 5:27 And he has given him authority to judge because he is the Son of Man.
Matt. 9:6—to forgive sins
Matt. 13:37—sends out angels to weed out his kingdom
Matt. 16:27—to give reward according to what each person has done.
2. As Lord of the Sabbath
Mk. 2:28 So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.” NIV11
3. Nowhere to lay his head.
Matt. 8:20 ¶ Jesus replied, “Foxes have holes and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.” NIV11
4. Sowed the good seed
Matt. 13:37 He answered, “The one who sowed the good seed is the Son of Man. NIV11
5. Speaking against
Matt. 12:32 Anyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but anyone who speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this age or in the age to come.
6. Who do people say he is
Matt. 16:13 When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say the Son of Man is?”
7. Comes eating and drinking
Luke 7:34 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.’
8. A Sign to this Generation
Lu. 11:30 For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so also will the Son of Man be to this generation.
C. His Betrayal
Matt. 20:18 “We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death NIV11
Cf. Mk. 10:33
Matt. 26:2 “As you know, the Passover is two days away—and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified.” NIV11
D. His Passion
Matt. 20:28 just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” NIV11
Cf. Mk. 10:45
Mark 9:12 ¶ Jesus replied, “To be sure, Elijah does come first, and restores all things. Why then is it written that the Son of Man must suffer much and be rejected? NIV11
E. His Burial
Matt. 12:40 For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. NIV11
F. His Resurrection
Mark 8:31 He then began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests and the teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and after three days rise again.
Mark 9:31 because he was teaching his disciples. He said to them, “The Son of Man is going to be delivered into the hands of men. They will kill him, and after three days he will rise.” NIV11
G. His Exaltaton
John 1:51 He then added, “Very truly I tell you, you will see ‘heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending on’ the Son of Man.”
H. His Glorification
John 12:23 ¶ Jesus replied, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified. NIV11
John 13:31 ¶ When he was gone, Jesus said, “Now is the Son of Man glorified and God is glorified in him.
I. Regarding His Second Coming
Matt. 16:27 For the Son of Man is going to come in his Father’s glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done.
Matt. 16:28 “Truly I tell you, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.” NIV11
Matt. 24:27 For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. NIV11
Matt. 24:30 ¶ “Then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. And then all the peoples of the earth will mourn when they see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory.
Also Matt. 10:23; 24:37,39,44;26:44;16:28;Mk. 8:38; 14:62; Lu. 17:22, 24, 26; 21:36, etc.
J. Reigning in the Kingdom of God on Earth
Matt. 19:28 ¶ Jesus said to them, “Truly I tell you, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his
glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Matt. 25:31 “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his glorious throne.
IV. When Stephen is about to die,
Acts 7:56 “Look,” he said, “I see heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God.”
V. John’s Vision in Revelation:
Rev. 1:13 and among the lampstands was someone “like a son of man,” dressed in a robe reaching down to his feet and with a golden sash around his chest.
Rev. 14:14 ¶ I looked, and there before me was a white cloud, and seated on the cloud was one “like a son of man” with a crown of gold on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand. NIV11
VI. Ps. 8:4 cited in Heb. 2:6
Heb. 2:6 But there is a place where someone has testified:
¶ “What is mankind that you are mindful of them, a son of man that you care for him? NIV11